跟着小白一起学鸿蒙—一起学做Tetris(下)

系统 OpenHarmony
现在我们需要设置高度后增加一个Row的布局,并增加两个Button控件,以下就是基础的Hap的page文件:index.ets。

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简介

接着《#跟着小白一起学鸿蒙# [番外]一起学做Tetris(上)》我们完善了页面,增加了左右按键和之前方块显示,方块消除。

#盲盒+码# #跟着小白一起学鸿蒙# [番外]一起学做Tetris(下)-开源基础软件社区

开发

1、按键增加

之前我们布局一直是只有个Canvas控件,现在我们需要设置高度后增加一个Row的布局,并增加两个Button控件,以下就是基础的Hap的page文件:index.ets。

build() {
Column() {
Column() {
Canvas(this.context)
.width('100%')
.height('100%')
.onClick((ev: ClickEvent) => {
console.info("click!!")
this.doClick()
})
.onTouch((ev) => {
console.info("touch:"+ev.type.toString())
console.info("touch x:"+ev.touches[0].screenX.toString())
console.info("touch y:"+ev.touches[0].screenY.toString())
})
.onReady(() =>{
this.context.imageSmoothingEnabled = false
this.randomType()
this.drawall()
})
}
.height('92%')
.width('100%')
Row() {
Button() { //按钮控件
Text('左')
.fontSize(20)
.fontWeight(FontWeight.Bold)
}.type(ButtonType.Capsule)
.width('20%')
.height('6%')
.backgroundColor('#0D9FFB')
.onClick(() => { //点击事件
if (this.left > 0) {
this.moveAction -= 1
}
})
Button() { //按钮控件
Text('右')
.fontSize(20)
.fontWeight(FontWeight.Bold)
}.type(ButtonType.Capsule)
.width('20%')
.height('6%')
.backgroundColor('#0D9FFB')
.onClick(() => { //点击事件
if (this.rightX < 240) {
this.moveAction += 1
}
})
}
}
.width('100%')
.height('100%')
.backgroundColor("#cccccc")
}

2、游戏完善的说明

之前我们的游戏只有布局,方块显示和变形,在完善后我们增加了积累方块的显示,消除,计分,游戏结束判断等。

(1)积累方块显示

drawBlockmap() {
let bs = this.blockSize
this.context.fillStyle = 'rgb(250,0,0)'
for (let i=0;i<23;i++) {
for (let j=0;j<9;j++) {
//是否有方块
if (this.blockmap[i][j] == 1) {
let y = i * this.blockSize
let x = j * this.blockSize
this.context.fillRect(x, y, bs, bs)
this.context.rect(x, y, bs, bs)
console.info("drawBlockmap:"+x.toString()+":"+y.toString())
}
}
this.context.stroke()
console.info("drawBlockmap:"+this.storeBlock.length.toString())
}
}

因为都是画布画的,为了重绘已经存在的方块,我们应用二维数组blockmap表示,值为1则有方块,数组索引则表示绘制坐标位置:

(2)判断是否到底还是到顶

checkBlockmap() {
if (this.storeBlock.length == 0) {
if (this.slotBottomY >= 660) {
return 1
}
} else {
let coords = this.curBlockShap
let startx = this.slotStartX + this.moveAction * this.blockSize
let starty = this.slotStartY + this.step * this.blockSize
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = startx + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = starty + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize + this.blockSize
for (let k=0;k<22;k++) {
for (let l=0;l<9;l++) {
if (this.blockmap[k][l] == 1) {
let blocky = k * this.blockSize
let blockx = l * this.blockSize
//判断是否到底
if ((x == blockx && y == blocky) || y > 660) {
//判断是否到顶
if (y == 210) {
this.context.drawImage( this.gameoverImg,this.startX,this.startY,300,90)
//到顶回2
return 2
}
//到底回1
return 1
}
}
}
}
}
}
return 0
}

先判断是否到底,到底的同时判断是否到顶,如果到顶了就是满了,如果只是到底则表明游戏可以继续 。

(3)到底积累方块

stackBlock() {
let block = []
let coords = this.curBlockShap
let startx = this.slotStartX + this.moveAction * this.blockSize
let starty = this.slotStartY + this.step * this.blockSize
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = startx + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = starty + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize
console.info("stackBlock x:"+x.toString()+"y:"+y.toString())
let indexX = x/this.blockSize
let indexY = y/this.blockSize
this.blockmap[indexY][indexX] = 1
console.info("stackBlock:"+indexX+":"+indexY)
block.push([x,y])
}
this.storeBlock.push(block)

console.info("stackBlock:"+this.storeBlock.length.toString())
}

如果到底了,就用坐标计算出 索引,然后在blockmap里标识为1,说明此处有方块,这样方便后面的绘制的显示。

(4)清除方块

cleanBlockmap() {
//检查是否一行满了
let needMove = 0
for (let i=22;i>=0;i--) {
let linecnt = 0
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
//是否有方块
if (this.blockmap[i][j] == 1) {
linecnt += 1
}
}
if (linecnt == 9) {
//此行都是方块,消除,计分
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
this.blockmap[i][j] = 0
}
needMove += 1
this.score += 1
} else if (needMove > 0) {
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
this.blockmap[i+needMove][j] = this.blockmap[i][j]
this.blockmap[i][j] = 0
}
}
}
}

二维数组的好处就是方便每行计数清除,然后从底向上再逐层替换。

(5)绘制每一步

drawStep() {
this.context.clearRect(0,0,this.context.width,this.context.height)
this.step += 1
this.drawBox()
this.drawBlockmap()
this.cleanBlockmap()
this.drawSideBlock()
this.drawBoxBlock()
this.drawScore()
let stepType = this.checkBlockmap()
if ( stepType == 1) {
this.stackBlock()
this.step = 0
this.randomType()
} else if (stepType == 2) {
this.state= 2
this.context.drawImage( this.gameoverImg,this.startX,this.startY,300,90)
}
}

绘制每一步其实就是重绘界面,包括如果游戏结束显示game over。

3、游戏逻辑

简单的小游戏主体游戏逻辑为:等待开始,开始,结束流程图如下:

graph LR
timer开始 --> 方块下落
timer开始 --> click[点击]
click[点击] --> 方块变形
方块下落 --> |落到底| 能消除 --> 计分 --> 堆积
方块下落 --> |落到底| 不能消除 --> 堆积
堆积 --> |堆积到顶| 满了 --> 游戏结束
堆积 --> |堆积到顶| 未满 --> 方块下落
doClick() {
if (this.state == 0) {
this.direction += 1
} else if (this.state == 2) {
this.state = 0
this.score = 0
this.storeBlock = []
this.initMap()
}
}

游戏结束后需要重新初始化内部数据。

4、完整逻辑

@Entry
@Component
struct Index {
@State message: string = 'Hello World'
private settings: RenderingContextSettings = new RenderingContextSettings(true);
private context: CanvasRenderingContext2D = new CanvasRenderingContext2D(this.settings);
private gameoverImg:ImageBitmap = new ImageBitmap("common/images/gameover.png")
private blockType: number = 0
private blockSize: number = 30
private blockShapBasic = [
[[0,0],[0,1],[0,2],[0,3]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[0,2],[1,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,1],[0,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,1],[1,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,0],[1,1]],
]
private blockShap = [
[[0,0],[0,1],[0,2],[0,3]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[0,2],[1,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,1],[0,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,1],[1,2]],
[[0,0],[0,1],[1,0],[1,1]],
]
private blockmap = [];
private curBlockShap = []
private storeBlock = []
private sideStartX = 300;
private sideStartY = 150;
private startX = 20
private startY = 300

private slotStartX = 120;
private slotStartY = 150;
private slotBottomY = 150;
private xleft = 0;
private rightX = 0;

private score = 0;
private step = 0;
private direction = 0;
private moveAction = 0;
private state = 0;

aboutToDisappear() {
}

aboutToAppear() {
this.initMap()
this.sleep(1000)
}

initMap() {
for (let i=0;i<23;i++) {
let item = []
for (let j=0;j<9;j++) {
item.push(0)
}
this.blockmap.push(item)
}
}

async sleep(ms: number) {
return new Promise((r) => {
setInterval(() => {
// console.log(this.message)
if (this.state == 0) {
this.drawStep()
}
}, ms)
})
}

doClick() {
if (this.state == 0) {
this.direction += 1
} else if (this.state == 2) {
this.state = 0
this.score = 0
this.storeBlock = []
this.initMap()
}
}

drawBox() {
this.context.lineWidth = 4
this.context.beginPath()
this.context.lineCap = 'butt'
this.context.moveTo(0, 100)
this.context.lineTo(270, 100)
this.context.moveTo(270, 100)
this.context.lineTo(270, 690)
this.context.moveTo(0, 690)
this.context.lineTo(270, 690)
}

setDirection() {
this.curBlockShap = this.blockShap[this.blockType]
if (this.direction > 0) {
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = this.curBlockShap[i][0]
this.curBlockShap[i][0] = this.curBlockShap[i][1]
this.curBlockShap[i][1] = x
}
this.direction = 0
}
}

drawSideBlock() {
this.context.fillStyle = 'rgb(250,0,0)'
let bs = this.blockSize
let coords = this.blockShapBasic[this.blockType]
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = this.sideStartX + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = this.sideStartY + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize
this.context.fillRect(x, y, bs, bs)
this.context.rect(x, y, bs, bs)
// console.info("x,y"+x.toString()+":"+y.toString())
}
this.context.stroke()
}

drawBoxBlock() {
let min = 690
let max = 0
this.setDirection()
this.context.fillStyle = 'rgb(250,0,0)'
let bs = this.blockSize
let coords = this.curBlockShap
let startx = this.slotStartX + this.moveAction * this.blockSize
let starty = this.slotStartY + this.step * this.blockSize
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = startx + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = starty + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize
min = min > x ? x:min
max = max < x ? x:max
this.context.fillRect(x, y, bs, bs)
this.context.rect(x, y, bs, bs)
// console.info("x,y"+x.toString()+":"+y.toString())
this.slotBottomY = y
this.xleft = min
this.rightX = max
}
this.context.stroke()
// console.info("min,max"+min.toString()+":"+max.toString())
}

stackBlock() {
let block = []
let coords = this.curBlockShap
let startx = this.slotStartX + this.moveAction * this.blockSize
let starty = this.slotStartY + this.step * this.blockSize
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = startx + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = starty + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize
console.info("stackBlock x:"+x.toString()+"y:"+y.toString())
let indexX = x/this.blockSize
let indexY = y/this.blockSize
this.blockmap[indexY][indexX] = 1
console.info("stackBlock:"+indexX+":"+indexY)
block.push([x,y])
}
this.storeBlock.push(block)

console.info("stackBlock:"+this.storeBlock.length.toString())
}

checkBlockmap() {
if (this.storeBlock.length == 0) {
if (this.slotBottomY >= 660) {
return 1
}
} else {
let coords = this.curBlockShap
let startx = this.slotStartX + this.moveAction * this.blockSize
let starty = this.slotStartY + this.step * this.blockSize
for (let i=0;i<4;i++) {
let x = startx + coords[i][0]*this.blockSize
let y = starty + coords[i][1]*this.blockSize + this.blockSize
for (let k=0;k<22;k++) {
for (let l=0;l<9;l++) {
if (this.blockmap[k][l] == 1) {
let blocky = k * this.blockSize
let blockx = l * this.blockSize
//判断是否到底
if ((x == blockx && y == blocky) || y > 660) {
//判断是否到顶
if (y == 210) {
this.context.drawImage( this.gameoverImg,this.startX,this.startY,300,90)
//到顶回2
return 2
}
//到底回1
return 1
}
}
}
}
}
}
return 0
}

cleanBlockmap() {
//检查是否一行满了
let needMove = 0
for (let i=22;i>=0;i--) {
let linecnt = 0
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
//是否有方块
if (this.blockmap[i][j] == 1) {
linecnt += 1
}
}
if (linecnt == 9) {
//此行都是方块,消除,计分
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
this.blockmap[i][j] = 0
}
needMove += 1
this.score += 1
} else if (needMove > 0) {
for (let j = 8;j >= 0; j--) {
this.blockmap[i+needMove][j] = this.blockmap[i][j]
this.blockmap[i][j] = 0
}
}
}
}

drawBlockmap() {
let bs = this.blockSize
this.context.fillStyle = 'rgb(250,0,0)'
for (let i=0;i<23;i++) {
for (let j=0;j<9;j++) {
//是否有方块
if (this.blockmap[i][j] == 1) {
let y = i * this.blockSize
let x = j * this.blockSize
this.context.fillRect(x, y, bs, bs)
this.context.rect(x, y, bs, bs)
console.info("drawBlockmap:"+x.toString()+":"+y.toString())
}
}
this.context.stroke()
console.info("drawBlockmap:"+this.storeBlock.length.toString())
}
}

drawScore() {
this.context.fillStyle = 'rgb(0,0,0)'
this.context.font = '80px sans-serif'
this.context.fillText("Score:"+this.score.toString(), 20, 140)
}

randomType() {
this.blockType = Math.floor(Math.random()*5)
console.info("blocktype:"+this.blockType.toString())
}

drawStep() {
this.context.clearRect(0,0,this.context.width,this.context.height)
this.step += 1
this.drawBox()
this.drawBlockmap()
this.cleanBlockmap()
this.drawSideBlock()
this.drawBoxBlock()
this.drawScore()
let stepType = this.checkBlockmap()
if ( stepType == 1) {
this.stackBlock()
this.step = 0
this.randomType()
} else if (stepType == 2) {
this.state= 2
this.context.drawImage( this.gameoverImg,this.startX,this.startY,300,90)
}
}

drawall() {
this.drawBox()
this.drawSideBlock()
this.drawBoxBlock()
this.drawScore()
}

build() {
Column() {
Column() {
Canvas(this.context)
.width('100%')
.height('100%')
.onClick((ev: ClickEvent) => {
console.info("click!!")
this.doClick()
})
.onTouch((ev) => {
console.info("touch:"+ev.type.toString())
console.info("touch x:"+ev.touches[0].screenX.toString())
console.info("touch y:"+ev.touches[0].screenY.toString())
})

.onReady(() =>{
this.context.imageSmoothingEnabled = false
this.randomType()
this.drawall()
})
}
.height('92%')
.width('100%')
Row() {
Button() { //按钮控件
Text('左')
.fontSize(20)
.fontWeight(FontWeight.Bold)
}.type(ButtonType.Capsule)
.width('20%')
.height('6%')
.backgroundColor('#0D9FFB')
.onClick(() => { //点击事件
if (this.xleft > 0) {
this.moveAction -= 1
}
})
Button() { //按钮控件
Text('右')
.fontSize(20)
.fontWeight(FontWeight.Bold)
}.type(ButtonType.Capsule)
.width('20%')
.height('6%')
.backgroundColor('#0D9FFB')
.onClick(() => { //点击事件
if (this.rightX < 240) {
this.moveAction += 1
}
})
}

}
.width('100%')
.height('100%')
.backgroundColor("#cccccc")
}
}

遗留问题:

  1. 有bug,方块变形不完整。
  2. 可实现网络对战(分布式对战)。

总结

本文主要介绍了小游戏的开发,画布功能的使用,游戏逻辑,分布式。

想了解更多关于开源的内容,请访问:​

​51CTO 开源基础软件社区​

​https://ost.51cto.com​​。

责任编辑:jianghua 来源: 51CTO开源基础软件社区
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