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如何在CentOS中添加、启用和禁用一个仓库
系统 Linux
Linux 发行版的大部分软件都来自发行版官方仓库。官方仓库包含大量免费和开源的应用和软件。它很容易安装和使用。

 在基于 RPM 的系统上,例如 RHEL、CentOS 等,我们中的许多人使用 yum 包管理器来管理软件的安装、删除、更新、搜索等。

Linux 发行版的大部分软件都来自发行版官方仓库。官方仓库包含大量免费和开源的应用和软件。它很容易安装和使用。

由于一些限制和专有问题,基于 RPM 的发行版在其官方仓库中没有提供某些包。另外,出于稳定性考虑,它不会提供***版本的核心包。

为了克服这种情况,我们需要安装或启用需要的第三方仓库。对于基于 RPM 的系统,有许多第三方仓库可用,但所建议使用的仓库很少,因为这些不会替换大量的基础包。

这可以在基于 RPM 的系统上完成,比如 RHEL, CentOS, OEL, Fedora 等。

  • Fedora 系统使用 dnf config-manager [options] [section …]
  • 其它基于 RPM 的系统使用 yum-config-manager [options] [section …]

如何列出启用的仓库

只需运行以下命令即可检查系统上启用的仓库列表。

对于 CentOS/RHEL/OLE 系统:

  1. # yum repolist
  2. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
  3. Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
  4. repo id repo name status
  5. base CentOS-6 - Base 6,706
  6. extras CentOS-6 - Extras 53
  7. updates CentOS-6 - Updates 1,255
  8. repolist: 8,014

对于 Fedora 系统:

  1. # dnf repolist

如何在系统中添加一个新仓库

每个仓库通常都提供自己的 .repo 文件。要将此类仓库添加到系统中,使用 root 用户运行以下命令。在我们的例子中将添加 EPEL 仓库 和 IUS 社区仓库,见下文。

但是没有 .repo 文件可用于这些仓库。因此,我们使用以下方法进行安装。

对于 EPEL 仓库,因为它可以从 CentOS 额外仓库获得,所以运行以下命令来安装它。

  1. # yum install epel-release -y

对于 IUS 社区仓库,运行以下 bash 脚本来安装。

  1. # curl 'https://setup.ius.io/' -o setup-ius.sh
  2. # sh setup-ius.sh

如果你有 .repo 文件,在 RHEL/CentOS/OEL 中,只需运行以下命令来添加一个仓库。

  1. # yum-config-manager --add-repo http://www.example.com/example.repo
  2.  
  3. Loaded plugins: product-id, refresh-packagekit, subscription-manager
  4. adding repo from: http://www.example.com/example.repo
  5. grabbing file http://www.example.com/example.repo to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo
  6. example.repo | 413 B 00:00
  7. repo saved to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo

对于 Fedora 系统,运行以下命令来添加一个仓库:

  1. # dnf config-manager --add-repo http://www.example.com/example.repo
  2. adding repo from: http://www.example.com/example.repo

如果在添加这些仓库之后运行 yum repolist 命令,你就可以看到新添加的仓库了。Yes,我看到了。

注意:每当运行 yum repolist 命令时,该命令会自动从相应的仓库获取更新,并将缓存保存在本地系统中。

  1. # yum repolist
  2.  
  3. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
  4. Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
  5. epel/metalink | 6.1 kB 00:00
  6. * epel: epel.mirror.constant.com
  7. * ius: ius.mirror.constant.com
  8. ius | 2.3 kB 00:00
  9. repo id repo name status
  10. base CentOS-6 - Base 6,706
  11. epel Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64 12,505
  12. extras CentOS-6 - Extras 53
  13. ius IUS Community Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64 390
  14. updates CentOS-6 - Updates 1,255
  15. repolist: 20,909

每个仓库都有多个渠道,比如测试(Testing)、开发(Dev)和存档(Archive)等。通过导航到仓库文件位置,你可以更好地理解这一点。

  1. # ls -lh /etc/yum.repos.d
  2. total 64K
  3. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2.0K Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-Base.repo
  4. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 647 Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
  5. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 289 Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
  6. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 630 Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-Media.repo
  7. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 916 May 18 11:07 CentOS-SCLo-scl.repo
  8. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 892 May 18 10:36 CentOS-SCLo-scl-rh.repo
  9. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6.2K Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-Vault.repo
  10. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7.9K Apr 12 02:44 CentOS-Vault.repo.rpmnew
  11. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 957 May 18 10:41 epel.repo
  12. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.1K Nov 4 2012 epel-testing.repo
  13. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.2K Feb 23 2017 ius-archive.repo
  14. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.2K Feb 23 2017 ius-dev.repo
  15. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.1K May 18 10:41 ius.repo
  16. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1.2K Feb 23 2017 ius-testing.repo

如何在系统中启用一个仓库

当你在默认情况下添加一个新仓库时,它将启用它们的稳定仓库,这就是为什么我们在运行 yum repolist 命令时获取了仓库信息。在某些情况下,如果你希望启用它们的测试、开发或存档仓库,使用以下命令。另外,我们还可以使用此命令启用任何禁用的仓库。

为了验证这一点,我们将启用 epel-testing.repo,运行下面的命令:

  1. # yum-config-manager --enable epel-testing
  2.  
  3. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
  4. ==================================================================================== repo: epel-testing =====================================================================================
  5. [epel-testing]
  6. bandwidth = 0
  7. base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6
  8. baseurl =
  9. cache = 0
  10. cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing
  11. cost = 1000
  12. enabled = 1
  13. enablegroups = True
  14. exclude =
  15. failovermethod = priority
  16. ftp_disable_epsv = False
  17. gpgcadir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing/gpgcadir
  18. gpgcakey =
  19. gpgcheck = True
  20. gpgdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing/gpgdir
  21. gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
  22. hdrdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing/headers
  23. http_caching = all
  24. includepkgs =
  25. keepalive = True
  26. mdpolicy = group:primary
  27. mediaid =
  28. metadata_expire = 21600
  29. metalink =
  30. mirrorlist = https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=testing-epel6&arch=x86_64
  31. mirrorlist_expire = 86400
  32. name = Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - Testing - x86_64
  33. old_base_cache_dir =
  34. password =
  35. persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing
  36. pkgdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing/packages
  37. proxy = False
  38. proxy_dict =
  39. proxy_password =
  40. proxy_username =
  41. repo_gpgcheck = False
  42. retries = 10
  43. skip_if_unavailable = False
  44. ssl_check_cert_permissions = True
  45. sslcacert =
  46. sslclientcert =
  47. sslclientkey =
  48. sslverify = True
  49. throttle = 0
  50. timeout = 30.0
  51. username =

运行 yum repolist 命令来检查是否启用了 “epel-testing”。它被启用了,我可以从列表中看到它。

  1. # yum repolist
  2. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
  3. Determining fastest mirrors
  4. epel/metalink | 18 kB 00:00
  5. epel-testing/metalink | 17 kB 00:00
  6. * epel: mirror.us.leaseweb.net
  7. * epel-testing: mirror.us.leaseweb.net
  8. * ius: mirror.team-cymru.com
  9. base | 3.7 kB 00:00
  10. centos-sclo-sclo | 2.9 kB 00:00
  11. epel | 4.7 kB 00:00
  12. epel/primary_db | 6.0 MB 00:00
  13. epel-testing | 4.7 kB 00:00
  14. epel-testing/primary_db | 368 kB 00:00
  15. extras | 3.4 kB 00:00
  16. ius | 2.3 kB 00:00
  17. ius/primary_db | 216 kB 00:00
  18. updates | 3.4 kB 00:00
  19. updates/primary_db | 8.1 MB 00:00 ...
  20. repo id repo name status
  21. base CentOS-6 - Base 6,706
  22. centos-sclo-sclo CentOS-6 - SCLo sclo 495
  23. epel Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64 12,509
  24. epel-testing Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - Testing - x86_64 809
  25. extras CentOS-6 - Extras 53
  26. ius IUS Community Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64 390
  27. updates CentOS-6 - Updates 1,288
  28. repolist: 22,250

如果你想同时启用多个仓库,使用以下格式。这个命令将启用 epel、epel-testing 和 ius 仓库:

  1. # yum-config-manager --enable epel epel-testing ius

对于 Fedora 系统,运行下面的命令来启用仓库:

  1. # dnf config-manager --set-enabled epel-testing

如何在系统中禁用一个仓库

无论何时你在默认情况下添加一个新的仓库,它都会启用它们的稳定仓库,这就是为什么我们在运行 yum repolist 命令时获取了仓库信息。如果你不想使用仓库,那么可以通过下面的命令来禁用它。

为了验证这点,我们将要禁用 epel-testing.repoius.repo,运行以下命令:

  1. # yum-config-manager --disable epel-testing ius
  2.  
  3. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
  4. ==================================================================================== repo: epel-testing =====================================================================================
  5. [epel-testing]
  6. bandwidth = 0
  7. base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6
  8. baseurl =
  9. cache = 0
  10. cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing
  11. cost = 1000
  12. enabled = 0
  13. enablegroups = True
  14. exclude =
  15. failovermethod = priority
  16. ftp_disable_epsv = False
  17. gpgcadir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing/gpgcadir
  18. gpgcakey =
  19. gpgcheck = True
  20. gpgdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing/gpgdir
  21. gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
  22. hdrdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing/headers
  23. http_caching = all
  24. includepkgs =
  25. keepalive = True
  26. mdpolicy = group:primary
  27. mediaid =
  28. metadata_expire = 21600
  29. metalink =
  30. mirrorlist = https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=testing-epel6&arch=x86_64
  31. mirrorlist_expire = 86400
  32. name = Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - Testing - x86_64
  33. old_base_cache_dir =
  34. password =
  35. persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/epel-testing
  36. pkgdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/epel-testing/packages
  37. proxy = False
  38. proxy_dict =
  39. proxy_password =
  40. proxy_username =
  41. repo_gpgcheck = False
  42. retries = 10
  43. skip_if_unavailable = False
  44. ssl_check_cert_permissions = True
  45. sslcacert =
  46. sslclientcert =
  47. sslclientkey =
  48. sslverify = True
  49. throttle = 0
  50. timeout = 30.0
  51. username =
  52.  
  53. ========================================================================================= repo: ius =========================================================================================
  54. [ius]
  55. bandwidth = 0
  56. base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6
  57. baseurl =
  58. cache = 0
  59. cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/ius
  60. cost = 1000
  61. enabled = 0
  62. enablegroups = True
  63. exclude =
  64. failovermethod = priority
  65. ftp_disable_epsv = False
  66. gpgcadir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/ius/gpgcadir
  67. gpgcakey =
  68. gpgcheck = True
  69. gpgdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/ius/gpgdir
  70. gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/IUS-COMMUNITY-GPG-KEY
  71. hdrdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/ius/headers
  72. http_caching = all
  73. includepkgs =
  74. keepalive = True
  75. mdpolicy = group:primary
  76. mediaid =
  77. metadata_expire = 21600
  78. metalink =
  79. mirrorlist = https://mirrors.iuscommunity.org/mirrorlist?repo=ius-centos6&arch=x86_64&protocol=http
  80. mirrorlist_expire = 86400
  81. name = IUS Community Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64
  82. old_base_cache_dir =
  83. password =
  84. persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/6/ius
  85. pkgdir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/6/ius/packages
  86. proxy = False
  87. proxy_dict =
  88. proxy_password =
  89. proxy_username =
  90. repo_gpgcheck = False
  91. retries = 10
  92. skip_if_unavailable = False
  93. ssl_check_cert_permissions = True
  94. sslcacert =
  95. sslclientcert =
  96. sslclientkey =
  97. sslverify = True
  98. throttle = 0
  99. timeout = 30.0
  100. username =

运行 yum repolist 命令检查 “epel-testing” 和 “ius” 仓库是否被禁用。它被禁用了,我不能看到那些仓库,除了 “epel”。

  1. # yum repolist
  2. Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
  3. Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
  4. * epel: mirror.us.leaseweb.net
  5. repo id repo name status
  6. base CentOS-6 - Base 6,706
  7. centos-sclo-sclo CentOS-6 - SCLo sclo 495
  8. epel Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - x86_64 12,505
  9. extras CentOS-6 - Extras 53
  10. updates CentOS-6 - Updates 1,288
  11. repolist: 21,051

或者,我们可以运行以下命令查看详细信息:

  1. # yum repolist all | grep "epel*\|ius*"
  2. * epel: mirror.steadfast.net
  3. epel Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 enabled: 12,509
  4. epel-debuginfo Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 disabled
  5. epel-source Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 disabled
  6. epel-testing Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 disabled
  7. epel-testing-debuginfo Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 disabled
  8. epel-testing-source Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 disabled
  9. ius IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  10. ius-archive IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  11. ius-archive-debuginfo IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  12. ius-archive-source IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  13. ius-debuginfo IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  14. ius-dev IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  15. ius-dev-debuginfo IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  16. ius-dev-source IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  17. ius-source IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  18. ius-testing IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  19. ius-testing-debuginfo IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled
  20. ius-testing-source IUS Community Packages for Enterprise disabled

对于 Fedora 系统,运行以下命令来启用一个仓库:

  1. # dnf config-manager --set-disabled epel-testing

或者,可以通过手动编辑适当的 repo 文件来完成。为此,打开相应的 repo 文件并将值从 enabled=0 改为 enabled=1(启用仓库)或从 enabled=1 变为 enabled=0(禁用仓库)。

即从:

  1. [epel]
  2. name=Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - $basearch
  3. #baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/$basearch
  4. mirrorlist=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=epel-6&arch=$basearch
  5. failovermethod=priority
  6. enabled=0
  7. gpgcheck=1
  8. gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6

改为:

  1. [epel]
  2. name=Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux 6 - $basearch
  3. #baseurl=http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/$basearch
  4. mirrorlist=https://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/metalink?repo=epel-6&arch=$basearch
  5. failovermethod=priority
  6. enabled=1
  7. gpgcheck=1
  8. gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-6
责任编辑:庞桂玉 来源: Linux中国

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