U盘安装Debian 7.0 Wheezy

运维 系统运维
日前,Debian团队日前发布消息表示Debian Linux 7.0.0稳定版本(代号Wheezy)已经正式推出。本文分享了U盘安装Debian 7.0 Wheezy的方法。

  本安装的试验机器型号:笔记本acer ASPIRE 4730ZG (有点老), Intel Pentium dual-core T4200; display: ATI Mobility Radeon HD 3470。其他机器上的安装大同小异,因为debian7.0对机器型号有非常广泛的兼容性。且安装时并不需要对机器有太多的了解。一个比较重要的问题是显卡驱动,debian7.0下有两种选择:厂商闭源驱动(需手动下载安装)或者debian提供的开源驱动(不需额外安装)。一般来说,具体的选择要看显卡品牌,我的显卡是AMD的,故安装厂商的驱动。***说一句,不要幻想***次安装就得到一个令你满意的linux系统。成功的***次安装linux只是一个起点。

  1.在debian主页下载Wheezy netinst

2.下载boot.img.gz文件,地址点击此处查看

  3.准备安装U盘,按照http://d-i.alioth.debian.org/manual/en.i386/ch04s03.html中的4.3.2节在linux环境下完成制作。这一步将制作得到一个可以启动的用于安装系统的U盘操作系统。制作好U盘后,重启机器,让机器从U盘启动。进入安装界面。可以选图形,也可以选文本,个人觉得文本稍快些。

  4.安装

  1)Go to Advanced options -> Expert install -> Execute a shell, run:

  # nano /bin/check-missing-firmware
  Add "exit 0" below the line "#!/bin/sh".
  This is to prevent the hanging-on by error "Detecting the network hardware". 这一步原本是用于测试版的安装,现在wheezy已经发布,故不再需要,直接进入第二步。

  2)分区:

  /boot          100M
  /              25G (个人觉得25G绝对够了)
  /var           4G
  swap           2G
  /home          剩余空间

  分区完成后仅仅安装system-base,不要安装任何其他的软件,至于桌面环境接下来再安装。请安装 non-free sources。

  3)After the basic installation, before finish the installation, execute a shell, run:

  # mount -t ext4 /dev/sda2 /mnt        //Note: sda2 is the partition of the /.
  # cd /mnt/etc/modprobe.d/ && nano ./radeon-kms.conf
  Type the following line into the file:
  options radeon modeset=0
  (##This must not be changed if the machine uses AMD display card. Refer to http://openwares.net/linux/reset_amd_kms.html)

  保存。完成安装,拔去U盘,重启。到此,一个基本系统即安装完成。

  4) 登录,在命令行下运行:

  $ sudo aptitude install lxde firmware-realtek    ///Note: Install the desktop environment LXDE.LXDE和xfce4都是老机器的选择。华丽的可选gnome3和KDE。
  $ sudo groupadd -f powerdev
  $ sudo adduser USERNAME powerdev
  Reboot and log into the LXDE environment.

  5.Locales

  $sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales   //Note: command for check: locale -a
  Select:
  en_US.UTF-8         //Note: used as default
  en_US.iso88591
  zh_CN.gb2312
  zh_CN.gbk
  zh_CN.utf8
  zh_TW.big5
  zh_TW.utf8

  6.Install softwares.

  Downloaded Bleachbit and Libreoffice from webs and install them.
  $ sudo apt-get install inkscape gnome-screenshot fcitx fcitx-pinyin vlc

  7.Install xfce4-power-manager to control AC/batery

  $ sudo apt-get -y purge xscreensaver xscreensaver-data
  $ sudo apt-get install xfce4-power-manager

  8.Install AMD driver(厂商闭源驱动).

  Prepare for installation environment:
  $ sudo apt-get install module-assistant build-essential
  $ sudo apt-get install fakeroot dh-make debconf libstdc++5 linux-headers-$(uname -r) firmware-realtek
  Download the AMD driver (http://support.amd.com/us/gpudownload/Pages/index.aspx) and run:
  $ sudo sh ./amd-driver-installer-*.run --install   //Note: use option --help can check other commands.

  9.su

  $ sudo su    //Note: once logged in, run:
  # passwd     //Note: enter a new root password and from there on out you can log in via su.

  10.Sound

  $ sudo apt-get install alsa-utils
  Use command "$ lspci -v" to check whether a proper driver for sound card is working. If so, run:
  #alsactl
  #alsactl init

  11.Internet

  $ sudo apt-get install wicd wicd-gtk  //小巧强大的网络管理。
  $ sudo apt-get install firmware-ralink     //Note: non-free firmware of the wireless net driver rt2800pci, can be ckecked by command:
  $ lspci -v
  For successfully installing the non-free firmware, it should be sure that "non-free" in the /etc/apt/sources.list is uncommented (without # sign).

  12.Set fcitx

  $ cp /usr/share/applications/fcitx.desktop ~/.config/autostart/fcitx.desktop  //Note: Set fcitx autostarted as login.
  $ nano ~/.xprofile
  Then add three lines to set the environment variables:
  export GTK_IM_MODULE=fcitx
  export QT_IM_MODULE=fcitx
  export XMODIFIERS=@im=fcitx
  $ sudo apt-get remove fcitx-config-common  //Note: To remove the gtk configure packages. The word configure files are stored in ~/.config/fcitx.

  13.Remove translations in apt-get update

  Note: if no translation is needed, then run as following.
  $ sudo nano /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/99translations
  Add one line:
  Acquire::Languages "none";
  save.
  $ cd /var/lib/apt/lists && sudo rm -f *Translation*  //Note: Remove already indexed translations.

  14.Skype was found not responsive when started, downloaded the dynamic package of skype (4.0.0.8) and executed in the termnal. According to the error messages:

  "./skype: error while loading shared libraries: libXss.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory"
  "./skype: error while loading shared libraries: libQtNetwork.so.4: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory"
  Looked for the two libraries (libXss.so.1, libQtNetwork.so.4) in Debian's web, then run:
  $ sudo apt-get install libxss1 libqt4-network
  Evething then worked fine.

  后记:

  这次安装,是在解决了很多问题之后才实现的。并不像一周之前安装Fedora17那样一帆风顺, Debian的安装似乎永远没有那么顺利和快捷。很多其他linux发行版都宣称:一键安装。的确,方便快捷的安装和即装即用对于大多数用户而言是一个好的操作系统所必须的!但是从以上所见,要获得一个具备基本功能的debian系统并不是一件容易的事,这对于不了解debian的人来说又是难上加难。尽管如此,使得我对debian眷恋不已的,主要是其成熟的软件包管理系统、极强的可定制性以及其国际化和社区化。“apt-get”是我最早接触的linux命令,也是我认为在诸独立发行版中***的包管理命令,假若没有这个管理系统,我真的不敢想象,将一切从头编译会怎样麻烦。本想装一个国产的linux发行版,支持一下国产,看了好几个,比如雨林木风的StartOS,深度的LinuxDeepin,这两款似乎都不错,然而却太缺少可定制性了,难道他们所号称的“专为国人设计”便是将一些常用的软件都绑在了一起,甚至包括桌面环境也没有他种选择?也难怪,我们从一开始便被“经过重新包装过的Windows系统”惯坏了,以至于对于任何操作系统都会有类似的要求。其实,我认为,既然是开源的自由的操作系统,就不能不考虑到其潜在使用者对于自由定制的需求。优秀是一方面,自由定制也是不能忽略的。不妨在提供全功能的安装镜像之外,再提供一个具有自己特色的基本的操作系统核心给那部分喜欢自由定制和组合的用户,就像debian这样。

责任编辑:黄丹 来源: sina博客
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