Linux下使用刻录机的具体方法

运维 系统运维
刻录机可以分两种:一种是CD刻录,另一种是DVD刻录。使用刻录机可以刻录音像光盘、数据光盘、启动盘等。方便的储存数据和携带。所以我们更应该知道在Linux下如何使用刻录机,请看下文。

  1.1 先决条件

  a. Linux内核 >=V2.4.0-test8

  b. cdrecord V1.10a4 (http://www.fokus.gmd.de/research/cc/glone/employees/joerg.schilling/private/cdrecord.html)

  c. usbmgr V0.3.5 (http://www.wonder.ne.jp/~shuu/usbmgr/)

  d. modutils-2.3.15 或者更新的版本 (非常重要!)

  e. 装有HP CD-Writer Plus 8210e刻录机的电脑

  1.2 第一步

  请先查看你的BIOS里面的设置,看是否已经允许使用usb接口。如果你用同一台电脑,并且在MS Win下面可以正常得使用这个刻录机,

  那你可以省去检查BIOS这一步。

  1.3 给Linux做准备工作

  你必须对编译和升级内核100%的熟悉。如果你对此是个新手的话,那你要当心。因为你可能造成旧内核的丢失或者不能引导等问题。

  我建议使用模块化的内核配置,因此你要对"insmod","lsmod","modprobe","depmod"等命令非常的熟悉。

  1.3.1 menuconfig

  下面的是我配置内核时所选的选项:

  Code maturity level options -->-

  [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers

  Loadable module support --->

  [*] Enable loadable module support

  [*] Set version information on all module symbols

  [*] Kernel module loader

  Block devices --->

  Loopback device support

  SCSI support --->

  SCSI support

  SCSI disk support

  SCSI CD-ROM support

  [*] Enable vendor-specific extensions (for SCSI CDROM)

  (2) Maximum number of CDROM devices that can be loaded as modules

  SCSI generic support

  [*] Enable extra checks in new queueing code

  [*] Verbose SCSI error reporting (kernel size +=12K)

  [*] SCSI logging facility

  SCSI low-level drivers --->

  deactivate any SCSI-Device you don have!

  File systems --->

  ISO 9660 CDROM file system support

  [*] Microsoft Joliet CDROM extensions

  [*] /proc file system support

  UDF file system support (read only)

  USB support --->

  Support for USB

  [*] USB verbose debug messages

  [*] Preliminary USB device filesystem

  [*] Enforce USB bandwidth allocation (EXPERIMENTAL)

  --- USB Controllers

  UHCI (Intel PIIX4, VIA, ...) support

  <> OHCI (Compaq, iMacs, OPTi, SiS, ALi, ...) support

  Select the correct USB Controller for your System!!!!!!

  USB Mass Storage support

  这些就是所以和配置使用我的HP CD-Writer Plus 8210e刻录机有关的选项。我用的是V2.4.0-test8的内核。

  编译的时候会有大量的编译调试信息,如果正常的话他们可以不管他们,但如果发生问题的时候,他们可以帮助你查找的原因。

  再次警告:如果你对配置和安装新内核不是很熟悉的话建议要当心,这样是有一定风险的。

  1.3.2安装模块

  当你的新内核和模块编译完成后,你会在modules目录下面发现下面这些模块文件:

  cd /lib/modules/2.4.0-test8

  cd kernel

  ls fs/isofs

  isofs.o

  ls drivers/cdrom

  cdrom.o

  ls drivers/scsi

  scsi_mod.o sd.o sg.o sr_mod.o

  ls drivers/usb

  storage usb-uhci.o usbcore.o

  ls drivers/usb/storage

  usb-storage.o

  重新启动!

  1.4 下面的步骤

  下载usbmgr包,解压缩并阅读README文件。在解压后的目录里用make进行编译。然后make install。现在我们配置usbmgr的

  配置文件usbmgr.conf,它放在/etc/usbmgr目录下。编辑这个文件,进行下面几步:

  a) 去掉在HOST CONTROLLER这节里面的某个host选项前面的注释符"#".在我的计算机上是这样设置的: host usb-uhci

  b) 把下面三行加到STORAGE一节里的vendor 0x3f0 product 0x107这个模块的最后。

  scsi_mod, sr_mod, usb-storage

  现在你要运行"update_usbdb"这个命令:update_usedb usbmgr.conf

  接下去运行"usbmgr"命令。这个命令在后台执行,所以你看不到任何结果输出。但是你可以通过查看messages文件来查看运行情况:

  tail -n50 /var/log/messages

#p#

  正常的输出应该像这样的:

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[326]: start 0.3.5

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[328]: open error "/etc/usbmgr/preload.conf"

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: registered new driver usbdevfs

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: registered new driver hub

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb-uhci.c: $Revision: 1.237 $ time 11:07:02 Sep 10 2000

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb-uhci.c: High bandwidth mode enabled

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb-uhci.c: USB UHCI at I/O 0xfce0, IRQ 10

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb-uhci.c: Detected 2 ports

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: USB new device connect, assigned device number 1

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: kmalloc IF c2e1f760, numif 1

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: new device strings: Mfr=0, Product=2, SerialNumber=1

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: USB device number 1 default language ID 0x0

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: Product: USB UHCI Root Hub

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: SerialNumber: fce0

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: USB hub found

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: 2 ports detected

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: ganged power switching

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: standalone hub

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: global over-current protection

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: power on to power good time: 2ms

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: hub controller current requirement: 0mA

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: port 1 is removable

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: port 2 is removable

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: local power source is good

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: no over-current condition exists

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: hub.c: enabling power on all ports

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: hub driver claimed interface c2e1f760

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: kusbd: /sbin/hotplug add 1

  Sep 15 12:55:28 kernel: usb.c: kusbd policy returned 0x0

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[328]: "usb-uhci" was loaded

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[332]: mount /proc/bus/usb

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[328]: USB device is matched the configuration

  Sep 15 12:55:28 usbmgr[328]: "none" isn loaded

  这里还有两个文件需要查看:

  a) cat /proc/interrupts

  CPU0

  0: 991954 XT-PIC timer

  1: 19880 XT-PIC keyboard

  2: 0 XT-PIC cascade

  8: 2 XT-PIC rtc

  9: 14 XT-PIC Cirrus Logic PD 6832, Cirrus Logic PD 6832 (#2)

  10: 42 XT-PIC usb-uhci

  12: 243881 XT-PIC PS/2 Mouse

  13: 0 XT-PIC fpu

  14: 16314 XT-PIC ide0

  NMI: 0

  ERR: 0

  结果:可以看到usb-uchi已经起来了,并且被分配了一个中断:这里是:int10

  b) lsmod

  usb-uhci 21708 0 (unused)

  usbcore 49856 1 [usb-uhci]

  nfsd 69928 4 (autoclean)

  lockd 49340 1 (autoclean) [nfsd]

  sunrpc 58244 1 (autoclean) [nfsd lockd]

  unix 14372 37 (autoclean)

  结果:模块"usb-uhci"和"usbcore"应该在这里罗列。

  1.5. 试一下热插拔

  把带电的HP CD-Writer Plus 8210e 刻录机插到你主机的USB接口上。这样就会触动usbmgr程序来引导必须的模块。让我们

  先查看一下:tail -n50 /var/log/messages。新的输出应该是报告热插拔这个事件的,所以显示像下面这样:

  Sep 15 13:13:07 kernel: hub.c: port 1 connection change

  Sep 15 13:13:07 kernel: hub.c: portstatus 101, change 1, 12 Mb/s

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: hub.c: portstatus 103, change 0, 12 Mb/s

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: USB new device connect, assigned device number 2

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: kmalloc IF c2e1f660, numif 1

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: new device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=0

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: USB device number 2 default language ID 0x409

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Manufacturer: Shuttle Technology Inc.

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Product: HP USB CD-Writer Plus

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: unhandled interfaces on device

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: USB device 2 (prod/vend 0x3f0/0x107) is not claimed [..]

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Length = 18

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: DescriptorType = 01

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: USB version = 1.00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Vendor:Product = 03f0:0107

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: MaxPacketSize0 = 64

 ?ep 15 13:13:08 kernel: NumConfigurations = 1

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Device version = 2.00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Device Class:SubClass:Protocol = 00:00:00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Per-interface classes

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Configuration:

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bLength = 9

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bDescriptorType = 02

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: wTotalLength = 0027

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bNumInterfaces = 01

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bConfigurationValue = 01

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: iConfiguration = 03

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bmAttributes = 40

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: MaxPower = 0mA

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel:

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Interface: 0

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Alternate Setting: 0

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bLength = 9

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bDescriptorType = 04

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bInterfaceNumber = 00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bAlternateSetting = 00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bNumEndpoints = 03

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bInterface Class:SubClass:Protocol = ff:00:00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: iInterface = 04

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Endpoint:

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bLength = 7

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bDescriptorType = 05

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bEndpointAddress = 01 (out)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bmAttributes = 02 (Bulk)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: wMaxPacketSize = 0040

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bInterval = 00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Endpoint:

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bLength = 7

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bDescriptorType = 05

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bEndpointAddress = 82 (in)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bmAttributes = 02 (Bulk)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: wMaxPacketSize = 0040

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bInterval = 00

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: Endpoint:

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bLength = 7

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bDescriptorType = 05

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bEndpointAddress = 83 (in)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bmAttributes = 03 (Interrupt)

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: wMaxPacketSize = 0002

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: bInterval = 20

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: kusbd: /sbin/hotplug add 2

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: kusbd policy returned 0x0

  Sep 15 13:13:08 usbmgr[328]: USB device is matched the configuration

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: registered new driver usb-storage

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: scsi0 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: scsi : 1 host.

  Sep 15 13:15:55 kernel: Vendor: HP Model: CD-Writer+ 8200 Rev: 1.0f

#p#

  Sep 15 13:15:55 kernel: Type: CD-ROM ANSI SCSI revision: 02

  Sep 15 13:15:55 kernel: Detected scsi CD-ROM sr0 at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0

  Sep 15 13:15:55 kernel: sr0: scsi3-mmc drive: 8x/24x writer cd/rw xa/form2 cdda tray

  Sep 15 13:15:55 kernel: Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.11

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: WARNING: USB Mass Storage data integrity not assured

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: USB Mass Storage device found at 2

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: usb.c: usb-storage driver claimed interface c2e1f660

  Sep 15 13:13:08 kernel: USB Mass Storage support registered.

  Sep 15 13:13:08 usbmgr[328]: "scsi_mod" was loaded

  Sep 15 13:13:08 usbmgr[328]: "sr_mod" was loaded

  Sep 15 13:13:08 usbmgr[328]: "usb-storage" was loaded

  请先检查这行:USB device 2 (prod/vend 0x3f0/0x107)...,如果你得到的是同样的ID号(0x3f0/0x107),那就说明你安装

  的是HP8210e,如果你得到的ID是(0x3f0/0x207),那么说明你安装的是HP8230e,它还没有被支持。

  下面的12行十分重要。在"scsi: 1 host:"之后显示的是这个刻录机的有关信息。

  "Detected scsi CD-ROM sr0 at scsi0, channel 0, id 0, lun 0"这行告诉你你的刻录机已经被系统发现,并且设备名称是

  /dev/sr0。在其他的linux版本里可能会是/dev/scd0。这两个是没有区别的。看messages文件里面显示的什么就是什么了。

  可能是我的电脑太旧了,有的时候这个过程不一定成功,如果你发现信息里面没有出现供应商的名称,那你就需要重新插拔一次。两三次

  后应该就没有问题了。

  1.6 测试

  初次的测试可以是放一张普通的光盘到刻录机里,然后mount上去:mount -r -t iso9660 /dev/sr0。

  接下去就是测试刻录了:(cdrtools-1.10a04 这个包应该事先已经装好),用cdrecord -scanbus 可以查看刻录机信息:

  Cdrecord 1.10a04 (i586-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 J??Schilling

  Linux sg driver version: 3.1.16

  Using libscg version schily-0.4

  scsibus0:

  0,0,0 0) HP CD-Writer+ 8200 1.0f Removable CD-ROM

  0,1,0 1) *

  0,2,0 2) *

  0,3,0 3) *

  0,4,0 4) *

  0,5,0 5) *

  0,6,0 6) *

  0,7,0 7) *

  如果想看更多的信息,可以用:cdrecord -prcap -inq dev=0,0,0 返回的是:

  Cdrecord 1.10a04 (i586-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 J??Schilling

  scsidev: ,0,0

  scsibus: 0 target: 0 lun: 0

  Linux sg driver version: 3.1.16

  Using libscg version schily-0.4

  Device type : Removable CD-ROM

  Version : 2

  Response Format: 1

  Vendor_info : HP

  Identifikation : CD-Writer+ 8200

  Revision : 1.0f

  Device seems to be: Generic mmc CD-RW.

  Drive capabilities, per page 2A:

  Does read CD-R media

  Does write CD-R media

  Does read CD-RW media

  Does write CD-RW media

  Does not read DVD-ROM media

  Does not read DVD-R media

  Does not write DVD-R media

  Does not read DVD-RAM media

  Does not write DVD-RAM media

  Does support test writing

  Does read Mode 2 Form 1 blocks

  Does read Mode 2 Form 2 blocks

  Does read digital audio blocks

  Does restart non-streamed digital audio reads accurately

  Does not support BURN-Proof (Sanyo)

  Does read multi-session CDs

  Does read fixed-packet CD media using Method 2

  Does not read CD bar code

  Does not read R-W subcode information

  Does read raw P-W subcode data from lead in

  Does return CD media catalog number

  Does return CD ISRC information

  Does not support C2 error pointers

  Does not deliver composite A/V data

  Does play audio CDs

  Number of volume control levels: 256

  Does support individual volume control setting for each channel

  Does support independent mute setting for each channel

  Does not support digital output on port 1

  Does not support digital output on port 2

  Loading mechanism type: tray

  Does support ejection of CD via START/STOP command

  Does not lock media on power up via prevent jumper

  Does allow media to be locked in the drive via PREVENT/ALLOW command

  Is not currently in a media-locked state

  Does not support changing side of disk

  Does not have load-empty-slot-in-changer feature

  Does not support Individual Disk Present feature

  Maximum read speed in kB/s: 4234

  Current read speed in kB/s: 4234

  Maximum write speed in kB/s: 706

  Current write speed in kB/s: 706

  Buffer size in KB: 2048

  现在我们准备刻录了。我用的是cdrtools-1.10a04软件包。当然事先要看一下README文件。做的第一个测试是:(先放一张新的刻录盘)

  mkisofs -L -l -J -r file1 file2 dir1 dir2 | cdrecord -v -pad -eject -dummy -nofix fs=4m speed=4 dev=0,0,0 -

  这个命令把file1,file2,dir1,dir2做成一个iso9660格式的镜像文件,它使用了-J,-r参数,并通过管道直接传给cdrecord程序。

  cdrecord程序会按照冗余模式测试写完整个光盘。但这个只是测试,并没有真正的写到刻录盘上。这个命令使用了4M的RAM作为buff,

  并使用了4速刻录,使用的设备是scsi-device 0,0,0.请注意最后的那个破折号"-",它告诉cdrecord数据是来自于管道的。请查看这个

  测试刻录是不是有问题。请记住一点:一张光盘的最大容量是650M,在你刻录前请先查看要刻录的容量。

  真正的刻录命令应该是:

  mkisofs -L -l -J -r file1 file2 dir1 dir2 | cdrecord -v -pad -eject fs=4m speed=4 dev=0,0,0 -

  你要把-dummy -nofix 这两个参数去掉。

  如果你用新的CD-RW光盘就需要用下面这个命令:

  mkisofs -L -l -J -r file1 file2 dir1 dir2 | cdrecord -v -pad -eject blank=fast fs=4m speed=4 dev=0,0,0 -

  这个命令中的blank=fast参数将把CD-RW上的数据全部抹去,所以要当心使用。还要注意:千万不要在刻录的时候进行热插拔。

  这样会造成光盘甚至你的linux系统的破坏。所以记住在拔掉前一定要先取出光盘,以防万一。

  1.8 链接

  Linux USB-ProjectLinux-CD-Writing-HOWTO

       通过上文我们知道了如何在Linux下使用刻录机,赶快去跟朋友分享吧。

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