思科路由器ISDN配置

网络 路由交换
思科路由器是我们网络常用设备,对于ISDN的配置,这里详细的向大家描述了怎样去配置一个ISDN服务,同时去实现DDR和回拨命令。

本文面向思科路由器初学者详细的介绍了如何去进行ISDN的配置,并且通过SHOW RUN去查看配置后的结果,同时向大家介绍实现DDR以及举例说明如何去配置。

1.综合数字业务网(ISDN)

综合数字业务网(ISDN)由数字电话和数据传输服务两部分组成,一般由电话局提供这种服务。ISDN的基本速率接口(BRI)服务提供2个B信道和1个D信道(2B+D)。BRI的B信道速率为64Kbps,用于传输用户数据。D信道的速率为16Kbps,主要传输控制信号。在北美和日本,ISDN的主速率接口(PRI)提供23个B信道和1个D信道,总速率可达1.544Mbps,其中D信道速率为64Kbps。而在欧洲、澳大利亚等国家,ISDN的PRI提供30个B信道和1个64Kbps D信道,总速率可达2.048Mbps。我国电话局所提供ISDN PRI为30B+D。

2.基本命令

任务命令
设置ISDN交换类型isdn switch-type switch-type1
接口设置interface bri 0
设置PPP封装encapsulation ppp
设置协议地址与电话号码的映射dialer map protocol next-hop-address [name hostname] [broadcast] [dial-string]
启动PPP多连接ppp multilink
设置启动另一个B通道的阈值dialer load-threshold load
显示ISDN有关信息show isdn {active | history | memory | services | status [dsl | interface-type number] | timers}

注:1.交换机类型如下表,国内交换机一般为basic-net3。
按区域分关键字 交换机类型
Australia
basic-ts013 Australian TS013 switches
Europe
basic-1tr6 German 1TR6 ISDN switches
basic-nwnet3 Norway NET3 switches (phase 1)
basic-net3 NET3 ISDN switches (UK, Denmark, and other nations); covers the Euro-ISDN E-DSS1 signalling system
primary-net5 NET5 switches (UK and Europe)
vn2 French VN2 ISDN switches
vn3 French VN3 ISDN switches
Japan
ntt Japanese NTT ISDN switches
primary-ntt Japanese ISDN PRI switches
North America
basic-5ess AT&T basic rate switches
basic-dms100 NT DMS-100 basic rate switches
basic-ni1 National ISDN-1 switches
primary-4ess AT&T 4ESS switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)
primary-5ess AT&T 5ESS switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)
primary-dms100 NT DMS-100 switch type for the U.S. (ISDN PRI only)
New Zealand
basic-nznet3 New Zealand Net3 switches#p#

3.ISDN实现DDR(dial-on-demand routing)实例:

设置如下:
Router1:
hostname router1
user router2 password cisco
!
isdn switch-type basic-net3
!
interface bri 0
ip address 192.200.10.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer map ip 192.200.10.2 name router2 572
dialer load-threshold 80
ppp multilink
dialer-group 1
ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!
Router2:
hostname router2
user router1 password cisco
!
isdn switch-type basic-net3
!
interface bri 0
ip address 192.200.10.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer map ip 192.200.10.1 name router1 571
dialer load-threshold 80
ppp multilink
dialer-group 1
ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!

CiscoCisco思科路由器同时支持回拨功能,我们将Cisco思科路由器Router1作为Callback Server,Router2作为Callback Client。

与回拨相关命令:

任务命令
映射协议地址和电话号码,并在接口上使用在全局模式下定义的PPP回拨的映射类别。dialer map protocol address name hostname class classname dial-string
设置接口支持PPP回拨ppp callback accept
在全局模式下为PPP回拨设置映射类别map-class dialer classname
通过查找注册在dialer map里的主机名来决定回拨. dialer callback-server [username]
设置接口要求PPP回拨ppp callback request

设置如下:
Router1:
hostname router1
user router2 password cisco
!
isdn switch-type basic-net3
!
interface bri 0
ip address 192.200.10.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer map ip 192.200.10.2 name router2 class s3 572
dialer load-threshold 80
ppp callback accept
ppp multilink
dialer-group 1
ppp authentication chap

map-class dialer s3
dialer callback-server username
dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!

Router2:
hostname router2
user router1 password cisco
!
isdn switch-type basic-net3
!
interface bri 0
ip address 192.200.10.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer map ip 192.200.10.1 name router1 571
dialer load-threshold 80
ppp callback request
ppp multilink
dialer-group 1
ppp authentication chap

dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!
相关调试命令:
debug dialer
debug isdn event
debug isdn q921
debug isdn q931
debug ppp authentication
debug ppp error
debug ppp negotiation
debug ppp packet
show dialer
show isdn status#p#

举例:
执行debug dialer命令观察router2呼叫router1,router1回拨router2的过程.
router1#debug dialer
router2#ping 192.200.10.1

router1#
00:03:50: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up
00:03:50: BRI0:1PP callback Callback server starting to router2 572
00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call
00:03:50: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to down
00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call
00:03:50: BRI0:1: disconnecting call
00:03:51: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:2, changed state to up
00:03:52: callback to router2 already started
00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call
00:03:52: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:2, changed state to down
00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call
00:03:52: BRI0:2: disconnecting call
00:04:05: : Callback timer expired
00:04:05: BRI0:beginning callback to router2 572
00:04:05: BRI0: Attempting to dial 572
00:04:05: Freeing callback to router2 572
00:04:05: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up
00:04:05: BRI0:1: No callback negotiated
00:04:05: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Virtual-Access1, changed state to up
00:04:05: dialer Protocol up for Vi1
00:04:06: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state
to up
00:04:06: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Virtual-Access1, chang
ed state to up
00:04:11: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 572
#router1

4.ISDN访问首都在线263网实例:

本地局部网地址为10.0.0.0/24,属于保留地址,通过NAT地址翻译功能,局域网用户可以通过ISDN上263网访问Internet。263的ISDN电话号码为2633,用户为263,口令为263,所涉及的命令如下表:

任务命令
指定接口通过PPP/IPCP地址协商获得IP地址ip address negotiated
指定内部和外部端口ip nat {inside | outside}
使用ppp/pap作认证ppp authentication pap callin
指定接口属于拨号组1dialer-group 1
定义拨号组1允许所有IP协议dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
设定拨号,号码为2633dialer string 2633
设定登录263的用户名和口令ppp pap sent-username 263 password 263
设定默认路由ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 bri 0
设定符合访问列表2的所有源地址被翻译为bri 0所拥有的地址ip nat inside source list 2 interface bri 0 overload
设定访问列表2,允许所有协议access-list 2 permit any

具体配置如下:
hostname Cisco2503
!
isdn switch-type basic-net3
!
ip subnet-zero
no ip domain-lookup
ip routing
!
interface Ethernet 0
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ip nat inside
no shutdown
!
interface Serial 0
shutdown
no description
no ip address
!
interface Serial 1
shutdown
no description
no ip address
!
interface bri 0
ip address negotiated
ip nat outside
encapsulation ppp
ppp authentication pap callin
ppp multilink
dialer-group 1
dialer hold-queue 10
dialer string 2633
dialer idle-timeout 120
ppp pap sent-username 263 password 263
no cdp enable
no ip split-horizon
no shutdown
!
ip classless
!
! Static Routes
!
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 bri 0
!
! Access Control List 2
!
access-list 2 permit any
!
dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
!
! Dynamic NAT
!
ip nat inside source list 2 interface bri 0 overload
snmp-server community public ro
!
line console 0
exec-timeout 0 0
!
line vty 0 4
!
end

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责任编辑:chenqingxiang 来源: sun-train
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