软考英语之项目的特征——临时性

企业动态
软考英语练习。

    Project Characteristics

    A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

    Temporary

    Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. The end is reached when the project's objectives have been achieved, or it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the project is terminated. Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration; many projects last for several years. In every case, however, the duration of a project is finite. Projects are not ongoing efforts.

   In addition, temporary does not generally apply to the product, service or result created by the project. Most projects are undertaken to create a lasting outcome. For example, a project to erect a national monument will create a result expected to last centuries. Projects also may often have intended and unintended social, economic and environmental impacts that far outlast the projects themselves.

    The temporary nature of projects may apply to other aspects of the endeavor as well:

    The opportunity or market window is usually temporary—some projects have a limited time frame in which to produce their product or service.

    The project team, as a working unit, seldom outlives the project—a team created for the sole purpose of performing the project will perform that project, and then the team is disbanded and the team members reassigned when the project ends.

译文:

    项目是为提供某项独特产品、服务或成果所做的临时性努力。

    临时性

    临时性是指每一个项目都有确定的开始和结束,当项目的目的已经达到,或者已经清楚地看到该目的不会或不可能达到时,或者该项目的必要性已不复存在并已终止时,该项目即达到了它的终点。临时性不一定意味着时间短,许多项目都要延续好几年。然而,在任何情况下项目的期限都是有限的,项目不是持续不断的努力。

    此外,临时性一般不适用于项目所产生的产品、服务或成果。大多数项目是为了得到持久的结果。例如,兴建国家纪念碑式建筑项目就是为了要达到世代相传的目的。项目还经常会产生比项目本身更久远的、事先想到或未曾预料到的社会、经济和环境后果。

    项目的临时性质也适用于努力的其他方面:

    机遇或者市场窗口总是短暂的,即大部分项目都要在一定的时限内推出产品或提供服务。

    项目团队作为一个工作单位的存在时间很少超过项目本身,即大部分项目都是由特意为其组建的专门团队负责实施,项目完成时,这个团队也就解散了,团队成员重新安排。

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责任编辑:丁小雨 来源: 学赛网
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