如何Linux下得到CPU、内存及PCI信息

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如何Linux下得到CPU、内存及PCI信息。

很多时候我们需要得到linux下面的硬件信息,
那么如何得到呢?
其实linux给出了多种途径
我们看一下每一个命令,以便得到最详细的信息
/*
二,硬件的查看
  1,lspci
  2,dmidecode
  3,dmesg
*/
1,查看pci的相关信息
先解释一下概念:
什么是PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect,外围设备互联,
它是计算机上面应用的设备总线(总线,就是bus,是传输数据信号的通道)
lspci
这个命令默认是已经安装的,
如找不到此命令,可以安装pciutils这个包
命令举例:
lspci 
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000X Chipset Memory Controller Hub (rev 12)
00:02.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x4 Port 2 (rev 12)
00:03.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x4 Port 3 (rev 12)
00:04.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x8 Port 4-5 (rev 12)
00:05.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x4 Port 5 (rev 12) 
00:06.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x8 Port 6-7 (rev 12)
00:07.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset PCI Express x4 Port 7 (rev 12) 
00:10.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset FSB Registers (rev 12)        
00:10.1 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset FSB Registers (rev 12)        
00:10.2 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset FSB Registers (rev 12)        
00:11.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset Reserved Registers (rev 12)   
00:13.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset Reserved Registers (rev 12)   
00:15.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset FBD Registers (rev 12)        
00:16.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 5000 Series Chipset FBD Registers (rev 12)        
00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset PCI Express Root Port 1 (rev 09)
00:1d.0 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset UHCI USB Controller #1 (rev 09)
00:1d.1 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset UHCI USB Controller #2 (rev 09)
00:1d.2 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset UHCI USB Controller #3 (rev 09)
00:1d.3 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset UHCI USB Controller #4 (rev 09)
00:1d.7 USB Controller: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset EHCI USB2 Controller (rev 09) 
00:1e.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 82801 PCI Bridge (rev d9)                                      
00:1f.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB/3100 Chipset LPC Interface Controller (rev 09) 
00:1f.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 631xESB/632xESB IDE Controller (rev 09)                     
01:00.0 SCSI storage controller: LSI Logic / Symbios Logic SAS1068E PCI-Express Fusion-MPT SAS (rev 08)
02:00.0 PCI bridge: Broadcom EPB PCI-Express to PCI-X Bridge (rev c3)                                 
03:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet (rev 12)      
04:00.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6311ESB/6321ESB PCI Express Upstream Port (rev 01)              
04:00.3 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6311ESB/6321ESB PCI Express to PCI-X Bridge (rev 01)            
05:00.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6311ESB/6321ESB PCI Express Downstream Port E1 (rev 01)         
05:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6311ESB/6321ESB PCI Express Downstream Port E2 (rev 01)         
06:00.0 PCI bridge: Broadcom EPB PCI-Express to PCI-X Bridge (rev c3)                                 
07:00.0 Ethernet controller: Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II BCM5708 Gigabit Ethernet (rev 12)      
0e:0d.0 VGA compatible controller: ATI Technologies Inc ES1000 (rev 02)

从中看到的信息:Ethernet controller:这个是网卡
VGA compatible controller:这个是显卡
USB Controller: USB控制器
SCSI storage controller: SCSI的存储控制器    
说明:如果你感觉这份信息还不够详细,
那么可以在后面添加参数,有3个参数可以使用:
lspci -v   verbose 详细
lspci -vv     very verbose  很详细
lspci -vvv    even more verbose 更详细
以树结构来显示pci总线:
lspci -tv
   
简单显示:
lspci -n
00:00.0 0600: 8086:25c0 (rev 12)
00:02.0 0604: 8086:25e2 (rev 12)
00:03.0 0604: 8086:25e3 (rev 12)
00:04.0 0604: 8086:25f8 (rev 12)
00:05.0 0604: 8086:25e5 (rev 12)
00:06.0 0604: 8086:25f9 (rev 12)
00:07.0 0604: 8086:25e7 (rev 12)
00:10.0 0600: 8086:25f0 (rev 12)
00:10.1 0600: 8086:25f0 (rev 12)
00:10.2 0600: 8086:25f0 (rev 12)
00:11.0 0600: 8086:25f1 (rev 12)
00:13.0 0600: 8086:25f3 (rev 12)
00:15.0 0600: 8086:25f5 (rev 12)
00:16.0 0600: 8086:25f6 (rev 12)
00:1c.0 0604: 8086:2690 (rev 09)
00:1d.0 0c03: 8086:2688 (rev 09)
00:1d.1 0c03: 8086:2689 (rev 09)
00:1d.2 0c03: 8086:268a (rev 09)
00:1d.3 0c03: 8086:268b (rev 09)
00:1d.7 0c03: 8086:268c (rev 09)
00:1e.0 0604: 8086:244e (rev d9)
00:1f.0 0601: 8086:2670 (rev 09)
00:1f.1 0101: 8086:269e (rev 09)
01:00.0 0100: 1000:0058 (rev 08)
02:00.0 0604: 1166:0103 (rev c3)
03:00.0 0200: 14e4:164c (rev 12)
04:00.0 0604: 8086:3500 (rev 01)
04:00.3 0604: 8086:350c (rev 01)
05:00.0 0604: 8086:3510 (rev 01)
05:01.0 0604: 8086:3514 (rev 01)
06:00.0 0604: 1166:0103 (rev c3)
07:00.0 0200: 14e4:164c (rev 12)
0e:0d.0 0300: 1002:515e (rev 02)
显示其中的某一项:
lspci -d 14e4:164c -vvv
2,查看cpu的信息
cat /proc/cpuinfo
  
有几颗CPU? cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep physical id
  
[root@dev ~]# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'physical id'
physical id     : 0
physical id     : 0
physical id     : 0
physical id     : 0
如果physical id相同,表示这是一颗4核心的CPU
    
查看CPU的生产商和型号:
查看生产商:
cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'vendor_id'
查看型号:
cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'model name'
查看频率:
cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'cpu MHz'
查看核心的数量:
cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep 'cpu cores'
 
 
3,查看内存的信息:
[root@dev ~]# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          4048       1708       2339          0        164       1464
-/+ buffers/cache:         80       3967
Swap:         1983          0       1983
说明: -m参数,以M字节(megabytes)为单位查看内存大小,
上面的例子中我们可以看到,内存的总大小是4048M,也就是4G
        
想看到更详细的内存信息?
dmidecode -t memory
# dmidecode 2.7                 
SMBIOS 2.5 present.             
Handle 0x1000, DMI type 16, 15 bytes.
Physical Memory Array               
        Location: System Board Or Motherboard
        Use: System Memory                  
        Error Correction Type: Multi-bit ECC
        Maximum Capacity: 32 GB             
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Number Of Devices: 8                 
Handle 0x1100, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: 1024 MB                        
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 1                               
        Locator: DIMM1                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: 667 MHz (1.5 ns)              
        Manufacturer: 830B8089830B           
        Serial Number: E2940445              
        Asset Tag: 110818                    
        Part Number: NT1GT72U8PB1BN-3C       
Handle 0x1101, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: 1024 MB                        
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 1                               
        Locator: DIMM2                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: 667 MHz (1.5 ns)              
        Manufacturer: 830B8089830B           
        Serial Number: BB9C0441              
        Asset Tag: 110818                    
        Part Number: NT1GT72U8PB1BN-3C       
Handle 0x1102, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: 1024 MB                        
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 2                               
        Locator: DIMM3                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: 667 MHz (1.5 ns)              
        Manufacturer: 830B8089830B           
        Serial Number: 39A10445              
        Asset Tag: 110818                    
        Part Number: NT1GT72U8PB1BN-3C       
Handle 0x1103, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: 1024 MB                        
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 2                               
        Locator: DIMM4                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: 667 MHz (1.5 ns)              
        Manufacturer: 830B8089830B           
        Serial Number: BA9A0442              
        Asset Tag: 110818                    
        Part Number: NT1GT72U8PB1BN-3C       
Handle 0x1104, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: No Module Installed            
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 3                               
        Locator: DIMM5                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: Unknown                       
        Manufacturer:                        
        Serial Number:                       
        Asset Tag:                           
        Part Number:                         
Handle 0x1105, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits                 
        Data Width: 64 bits                  
        Size: No Module Installed            
        Form Factor:            
        Set: 3                               
        Locator: DIMM6                       
        Bank Locator: Not Specified          
        Type:                   
        Type Detail: Synchronous             
        Speed: Unknown                       
        Manufacturer:                        
        Serial Number:                       
        Asset Tag:                           
        Part Number:                         
Handle 0x1106, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device                       
        Array Handle: 0x1000        
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: No Module Installed
        Form Factor:
        Set: 4
        Locator: DIMM7
        Bank Locator: Not Specified
        Type:
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: Unknown
        Manufacturer:
        Serial Number:
        Asset Tag:
        Part Number:
Handle 0x1107, DMI type 17, 28 bytes.
Memory Device
        Array Handle: 0x1000
        Error Information Handle: Not Provided
        Total Width: 72 bits
        Data Width: 64 bits
        Size: No Module Installed
        Form Factor:
        Set: 4
        Locator: DIMM8
        Bank Locator: Not Specified
        Type:
        Type Detail: Synchronous
        Speed: Unknown
        Manufacturer:
        Serial Number:
        Asset Tag:
        Part Number:
从上面我们可以看到有4条1G的内存被安装在前4条内存插槽上,而locator从DIMM5-DIMM8是空着的
前四条内存的型号为:Part Number: NT1GT72U8PB1BN-3C
生产商的ID是:Manufacturer: 830B8089830B

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责任编辑:张燕妮 来源: ChinaUnix博客  
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